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An additional sample with narrower respondent selection criteria than the main sample. Used to get a sufficient sample to analyze some subgroup with a small share in the main sample.

Secondary Data

Information initially gathered by someone for goals unrelated to the current studys tasks.

Sample (selection)

A subgroup of elements (people, companies, shops, etc.) chosen from the parent population for study. The goal of studying a sample is to get information about the parent population, because a properly formed sample will match its parent population in its characteristics (will be representative of the parent population).


A list of questions and topics that the researcher must cover in focus groups or in-depth interviews. The guide is used in qualitative research, basically being the equivalent of quantitative researchs questionnaire.

Unlike a questionnaire, the guide is not a set in stone, step-by-step guide for the researcher. Should important facts that apply to the topic researched be uncovered in the course of focus groups or interviews, the moderator or interviewer may depart from the guide to clarify them.

Parent Population

The multitude of elements (people, companies, shops, etc.) that are being studied.

Fixed (close-ended) Question

A questionnaire question that lists answer options. Only answers provided may be chosen.

Armchair Research

Research based on gathering and analyzing secondary data (reports from other research, mass media publications, government statistics, etc.).

Qualitative Research

Research methods that typically lack structure (no strict moulds for data collection), are exploratory in nature (goals and information gathered may be altered in the course of the project), and use small samples.

Quantitative research is used when it is necessary to get exact data about the characteristics of the parent population studied. Simply put, quantitative research answers the How much?, while qualitative research answers the Why?.

The most widely used qualitative research methods are focus groups and in-depth interviews.

Coding Guidelines

A list of categories (answer options) that are used to code respondent answers to open-ended questions for further analysis. Categorizing responses by categories lets us calculate the percentage frequency with which any given answer was mentioned.

Recruitment Questions

Questions used to identify whether potential respondents belong to the studys target group.

Open-ended Question

A questionnaire question that does not list possible answers. Unlike fixed (close-ended) questions, open-ended questions are used to analyze respondents answers in their own words, not those chosen from a list prepared by the researcher in advance.

Field Stage (field work)

The data collection stage of research.


The ability of the sample to adequately portray (reproduce) the characteristics of the parent population.


The process of screening a respondent again, to make sure he belongs to the target group, right before the interview. Used when conducting focus groups and hall tests.


A person that is the source of information in the research (the guy answering questions).


A selection questionnaire that is used to see if the respondent belongs to the studys target group.

Target Group (target audience)

People whose characteristics make them suitable for participation in the survey. The target group is defined based on its representatives ability to provide information needed to achieve study goals. Basically, the term is a marketing equivalent of the statistical term parent population.

CAPI (Computer Assisted Personal Interviewing)

A data collection method, in which the respondents answers during a personal interview are entered into a computer immediately by the interviewer or the respondent fills out a questionnaire on a computer screen independently.

CATI (Computer Assisted Telephone Interviewing)

A data collection method, in which the respondents answers during a telephone interview are immediately entered by the interviewer into a computer database.

CAWI (Computer Assisted Web Interviewing)

A data collection method, in which the respondent independently fills out a questionnaire on a computer, and his answers are sent over the internet to a computer database.